Null Hypothesis in Learning

The null hypothesis states that there’s no relationship between two population parameters, i.e., a variable quantity and a variable. If the hypothesis shows a relationship between the 2 parameters, the result can be because of an experimental or sampling error. However, if the null hypothesis returns false, there’s a relationship within the measured phenomenon.

The null hypothesis is beneficial because it may be tested to conclude whether or not there’s a relationship between two measured phenomena. It can inform the user whether the results obtained are because of chance or manipulating a phenomenon. Testing a hypothesis sets the stage for rejecting or accepting a hypothesis within a specific confidence level.

Two main approaches to statistical inference during a null hypothesis will be used– significance testing by Ronald Fisher and hypothesis testing by Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson. Fisher’s significance testing approach states that a null hypothesis is rejected if the measured data is significantly unlikely to possess occurred (the null hypothesis is false). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and replaced with another hypothesis.

If the observed outcome is in line with the position held by the null hypothesis, the hypothesis is accepted. On the opposite hand, the hypothesis testing by Neyman and Pearson is compared to an alternate hypothesis to form a conclusion about the observed data. The 2 hypotheses are differentiated and supported by observed data.