Bernoulli’s law of fluid dynamics

Bernoulli’s law of fluid dynamics, named after Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli, states that in a steady flow of an incompressible fluid, the sum of the pressure energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy is constant along any given streamline.

This law is based on the conservation of energy and applies to all fluids, whether gases or liquids. It is commonly expressed as the Bernoulli equation:

P + 1/2ρv² + ρgh = constant

where P is the pressure, ρ is the density of the fluid, v is the velocity of the fluid, g is the acceleration due to gravity, h is the height above a reference plane, and the sum of the terms on the left-hand side of the equation represents the total energy per unit volume of the fluid at any point along the streamline.

According to Bernoulli’s law, as the speed of a fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases, and vice versa. This is often referred to as the Bernoulli principle. This effect can be seen in a number of applications, such as the lift generated by an airplane wing or the operation of a carburetor in a combustion engine.

However, it should be noted that Bernoulli’s law applies only to idealized, steady-state flows, and is not applicable to more complex, real-world flows where turbulence, viscosity, or compressibility play a significant role. More about Digital Content