Bose-Einstein condensation temperature

The Bose-Einstein condensation temperature is the temperature at which a gas of bosonic particles undergoes a phase transition and enters a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) state. At this temperature, a significant fraction of the bosonic particles occupy the same quantum state, leading to the formation of a macroscopic quantum state.

The Bose-Einstein condensation temperature depends on the density of the gas and the mass of the bosonic particles. For example, for alkali metal atoms such as rubidium and sodium, the condensation temperature is typically a few microkelvin. In contrast, for helium atoms, which have a smaller mass and higher density, the condensation temperature is a few Kelvin.

The Bose-Einstein condensation temperature is determined by the balance between the thermal energy of the particles and the strength of their interactions. As the temperature is lowered, the interactions become increasingly important, leading to the formation of the BEC state.

The discovery of Bose-Einstein condensation in 1995 in dilute atomic gases at ultracold temperatures has led to the development of a new field of research known as ultracold atomic physics. The study of BECs has also led to many practical applications in areas such as precision metrology, quantum computing, and quantum simulation. learn more about School Management System.