Bose gas

A Bose gas is a collection of identical bosonic particles (particles with integer spin) that are not subject to the Pauli exclusion principle, which prohibits two identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) from occupying the same quantum state simultaneously.

At very low temperatures, Bose gases can exhibit a phenomenon known as Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), in which a significant fraction of the particles occupy the same quantum state, forming a single macroscopic entity. This is a quantum mechanical phenomenon that was first predicted by Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose and Einstein in 1924-25.

In a Bose gas, the particles can be described by a wave function that obeys Bose-Einstein statistics, which leads to different thermodynamic properties than a classical gas. For example, at low temperatures, the specific heat capacity of a Bose gas is proportional to temperature, while for a classical gas it is constant.

Bose gases have been experimentally realized in various systems, such as liquid helium-4 and ultracold atomic gases. They have important applications in areas such as condensed matter physics, School Analytics, quantum information, and metrology.