Alpha particles are high-energy, helium nuclei that are comprised of two protons and two neutrons. They are one of the three main types of radioactive particles, along with beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles are commonly emitted from the nuclei of certain unstable isotopes during alpha decay, which is one of the types of radioactive decay.
Alpha particles have a large mass and a positive charge, which makes them relatively heavy and highly ionizing. This means that alpha particles can ionize other atoms and molecules as they pass through matter, and they can be stopped by relatively thin layers of material, such as a sheet of paper or the outer layer of human skin.
Despite their large mass and positive charge, alpha particles are not very penetrating, and they can be easily stopped by a few centimeters of air or a few millimeters of solid material. This makes them relatively safe to handle, and they are used in a variety of applications, including medical treatments, such as brachytherapy, and in the production of radioluminescent materials.
Alpha particles are also of interest in nuclear physics, School Management System as they are used to probe the properties of atomic nuclei and to study the properties of nuclear reactions. They are also used in radiation protection and in the study of the interactions of high-energy particles with matter.