A post hoc design, also known as a “post hoc” study, is defined as a research method used to investigate how an independent variable (a group with certain characteristics that were already present before the study) affects the dependent variable. It requires specific traits or characteristics of the participants that cannot be manipulated. A post hoc design is considered a quasi-experimental type of research, meaning that participants are not randomly assigned, but are grouped based on specific characteristics or common characteristics.
Post-hoc research focuses on how behaviour that has already occurred was predicted by certain causes. Therefore, the researcher cannot manipulate or change behaviour or behaviours that have already occurred or the specific characteristics and traits that participants embody. This type of research tests hypotheses to determine the causal relationship between independent and dependent variables.