Absorption spectroscopy is a technique used to determine the presence of a specific chemical species in a sample by analyzing the absorption of light as it passes through the sample. In this method, light of a specific wavelength is passed through the sample, and the amount of light absorbed by the sample is measured. The absorption spectrum, which is a plot of the intensity of the light passing through the sample as a function of wavelength, provides information about the chemical composition of the sample.
Absorption spectroscopy is based on the principle that different chemical species absorb light at different wavelengths. When light of a specific wavelength encounters an absorbing species, it is absorbed, causing a decrease in the intensity of the light that passes through the sample. This decrease in intensity is proportional to the concentration of the absorbing species in the sample. By measuring the intensity of the light at different wavelengths, it is possible to determine the presence of specific chemical species in the sample.
There are several types of absorption spectroscopy, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Each of these techniques has specific advantages and disadvantages and is best suited for different types of samples and applications. Absorption spectroscopy is widely used in many fields, including chemistry, biology, environmental science, and materials science, for the analysis of a wide range of samples, from small molecules to complex biological systems.