In particle physics, a boson is a type of particle that obeys Bose-Einstein statistics. This means that multiple bosons can occupy the same quantum state, leading to phenomena such as Bose-Einstein condensation. Bosons have integer values of spin, such as 0, 1, 2, and so on.
Bosons include many fundamental particles, such as photons (the particles that make up light), W and Z bosons (the particles responsible for the weak force), gluons (the particles that mediate the strong force), and the Higgs boson (the particle associated with the Higgs field, which gives other particles mass).
Bosons can also be composite particles, made up of multiple fundamental particles. For example, mesons, which are made up of a quark and an antiquark, are bosons.
Because of their unique statistical properties, bosons play important roles in many areas of physics, including in the study of condensed matter systems, such as superfluids and superconductors, and in the field of ultracold atomic physics, where they can be used to create Bose-Einstein condensates. Bosons are also important in particle physics, where they play a central role in the theory of the electroweak and strong interactions. learn more about School Analytics.