Bragg reflection

Bragg reflection is a phenomenon in which X-rays or neutrons are diffracted by the regular arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. It was first observed by father and son team, William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg in 1912, who used this reflection to determine the structure of crystals.

When X-rays or neutrons are incident on a crystal, they interact with the electrons and nuclei of the atoms in the crystal. If the spacing between the atoms in the crystal is similar to the wavelength of the X-rays or neutrons, constructive interference occurs, Learning Management System, leading to strong reflection or diffraction of the incident beam. This is known as Bragg reflection.

The Bragg reflection condition is given by the Bragg equation:

nλ = 2d sin θ

where n is an integer (the order of reflection), λ is the wavelength of the X-rays or neutrons, d is the spacing between atomic planes in the crystal, and θ is the angle between the incident beam and the atomic planes.

Bragg reflection has numerous applications in material science, crystallography, and X-ray and neutron diffraction studies. It is used to determine the crystal structure of materials, and to study the properties of solids, liquids, and gases at the atomic and molecular level.