The unification of Germany refers to the process of merging the two separate German countries, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), into a single country. This process began in the late 1980s and was completed on October 3, 1990.
The unification process began with the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, which marked the end of the division of Germany and the beginning of a peaceful revolution in the East. This led to the opening of the border between the two countries and the eventual free elections in East Germany.
The unification process was formalised in the Two Plus Four Treaty, signed on September 12, 1990 by the two German states and the four victorious powers of World War II (the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and France). This treaty ensured that Germany would not seek to acquire nuclear weapons and would continue to adhere to the boundaries established by the Potsdam Agreement.
The unification of Germany was a historic event that marked the end of the Cold War and the beginning of a new era in European history. It brought an end to the division of Germany and Europe and paved the way for the country’s integration into the European Union.
One of the main drivers behind unification was the growing desire among East Germans for political and economic reform. This desire was fueled by the changes taking place in Eastern Europe, where communist governments were falling and citizens were demanding greater freedom and democracy.